分类: 著作、资料、出版物 > 陶瓷器 > 工艺技术

    烧瓷工艺之一,又称为烘花。即陶瓷器釉上施以彩绘,放入低温炉烘烤,温度一般在600~850℃。经过这一道工序后,陶瓷的彩料才能固着于瓷面上,并显示出光泽。
    釉上彩绘装饰必须经过烤花工艺才能最终让颜料发色,使颜料与釉面结合并固定下来。传统的烤花是以木炭为燃料,烤花炉由两层组成,内层为一圆形深筒状的大匣钵,上面配置一个稍呈鼓起状的匣钵盖,上有一酒盅大小的圆洞,用采察看火色。匣底垫四块耐火砖,在大匣的外侧一定距离处砌耐火砖圈体,并在底部开几个孔(以炉体大小而定小孔的多少,俗称“爬火眼”),用于爬退木炭来降低温度。大匣内用于装烧瓷器,匣与外层耐火砖之间的空隙为烧木炭之处,俗称火膛。烤烧初期不宜封死炉口以利湿气和油气挥发。升温速度应视器物的大小、多少而定。大件或厚胎升温应慢,小件或薄胎器则可稍快。烤烧时可通过封炉时预留的观火眼观察炉内烧成情况。瓷器随着温度的升高逐渐烧红后,慢慢由清晰变得模糊,又由模糊再转向清晰时,瓷器形体成为橘黄泛白色,即可熄火,并采取自然冷却法。相比之下,古彩、粉彩冷却时间比之新彩、墨彩时间长。烤花满炉(即装窑)也甚为讲究,一般是大件在下,小件在上。有些口沿镶金或上色的器物,装炉时应采用到碗过肩法,这样既节省空间又不致伤及金线和色彩。满炉不易太满,也不易太空。
    现今景德镇的烤花炉已基本上改用电窑,烧成更加方便。但装、开窑及烧窑、冷却过程中所注意的事项与传统木炭窑一致。

When applying the over glaze decoration,we must go through the process of decoration firing before the over glaze pigments are fully developed and blended with the glazed coating.Charcoal is the main fuel in the traditional decoration firing.A decoration firing furnace has two components.The inner component is a large and round sagger with a vortex sagger cover on the top, which has a round hole as an observation hole. It looks like a deep tube.Four refractory bricks are laid on the bottom of the sagger. There is a certain distance between the outer surface of the large sagger and the circle wall made of refractory brick.There are a number of holes on the bottom (The number of holes depend on the size of the furmace and the holes are locally called“fire holes”).Workers use the holes to remove charcoal out of the furnace for cooling.Porcelains are loaded and fired in the large sagger and charcoal is put into the separation between the sagger and the outer refractory bricks. The separation is locally Called “fire chamber”.At the initial stage of firing,it is not beneficial to seal the furnace in order for the volatilization of moisture.The heat—up rate depends upon the sizes and numbers of wares in the sagger. The rate should be slower for the large or thick—bodied wares,or rapid for small and thin bodied ones.The firing conditions in the furnace can be observed through the hole on the cover in the course of firing.As the temperature increases,the wares will gradually become redder and slowly become more obscure.When the forms of wares slowly become clearer and the wares present light orange in color,it is the time to stop firing and cool the wares in a natural way.By contrast,the cooling time for Gucai and Fencai is longer than that of grisaille painting and polychrome painting.It also careful undertaking to load the decoration firing furnace(i.e. loading a kiln).The common way is to load larger wares before small ones.When loading the co1ored wares or wares with gilt lacing,the inverted bowl method should be applied for it saves space and will not damage the golden lines and colors.The furnace should neither be too full,nor too empty. Today, the decoration firing furnaces in Jingdezhen have been changed to electric kilns on the whole.It is more convenient for firing.The points for attention in the process of loading,unloading,firing and cooling are basically similar to those of the traditional charcoal kilns.

传统烤花工艺


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